Writing and publishing a research paper is a rewarding and challenging experience for students who want to share their research and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their field. 

It is also a complex and competitive process that requires careful planning, rigorous research, and clear writing. In this post, we will guide you through the 7 steps of writing and publishing a research paper, and provide you with some tips and resources to help you succeed.

Find: Scopus indexed journals

Step 1: Choose a Research Topic and Question

The first step is to choose a research topic and question that interests you and is relevant to your field of study. You should consider the following factors when selecting a topic and question:

•  The scope and feasibility of the topic: Is it too broad or too narrow? Can it be researched within the time and resources available?

•  The originality and significance of the topic: Is it new and interesting? Does it address a gap or problem in the existing literature?

•  The purpose and audience of the topic: What do you want to achieve with your research? Who will benefit from your research?

You can use various tools and resources to help you choose a topic and question, such as:

•  The literature review: You can read and analyze the previous and current research on your topic, and identify the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the literature.

•  The brainstorming: You can generate and organize your ideas, using techniques such as mind mapping, freewriting, or listing.

•  The feedback: You can consult with your supervisor, instructor, or peers, and get their suggestions and opinions on your topic and question.

Step 2: Conduct a Literature Review

The second step is to conduct a literature review, which is a systematic and critical analysis of the existing research on your topic. The purpose of the literature review is to:

•  Provide the background and context for your research

•  Demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the field

•  Identify the key theories, concepts, and methods in the field

•  Evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the literature

•  Synthesize and integrate the literature into a coherent framework

•  Establish the significance and contribution of your research

You can use various tools and resources to help you conduct a literature review, such as:

•  The databases and search engines: You can search for and access relevant and reliable sources, such as books, journals, articles, reports, etc., using databases and search engines such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, etc.

•  The citation managers: You can organize and manage your sources, using citation managers such as Zotero, Mendeley, EndNote, etc.

Step 3: Design a Research Methodology

The third step is to design a research methodology, which is a plan and strategy for conducting your research. The research methodology should include:

•  The research approach: The overall perspective and logic of your research, such as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods.

•  The research design: The specific structure and procedure of your research, such as case study, experiment, survey, etc.

•  The research methods: The techniques and tools for collecting and analyzing data, such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, statistics, etc.

•  The research ethics: The principles and standards for ensuring the quality, validity, and reliability of your research, as well as the protection of the rights and welfare of the participants and the researchers.

You can use various tools and resources to help you design a research methodology, such as:

•  The methodology books and articles: You can read and learn from the books and articles that explain and illustrate the different aspects of research methodology.

•  The methodology software: You can use software to assist you in designing and conducting your research, such as SPSS, NVivo, R, etc.

Step 4: Collect and Analyze Data

The fourth step is to collect and analyze data, which is the process of gathering and interpreting the information that answers your research question. The data collection and analysis should be based on your research methodology and should follow the ethical guidelines. The data collection and analysis should include:

•  The data collection: The process of obtaining the data from the sources or participants, using the methods and tools that you have chosen, such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, etc.

•  The data preparation: The process of organizing and cleaning the data, such as transcribing, coding, categorizing, etc.

•  The data analysis: The process of examining and explaining the data, using the techniques and tools that you have chosen, such as statistics, graphs, tables, etc.

Step 5: Write and Format the Research Paper

The fifth step is to write and format the research paper, which is a detailed and structured document that presents and discusses your research. The research paper should include:

•  The title: A concise and informative statement that summarizes the main idea and findings of your research.

•  The abstract: A brief and comprehensive summary of your research, including the purpose, methods, results, and implications.

•  The introduction: A clear and coherent introduction that introduces your research topic, background, gap, question, objective, and hypothesis.

•  The literature review: A comprehensive and critical literature review that synthesizes and evaluates the existing research on your topic.

•  The methodology: A detailed and rigorous methodology that describes and justifies the design, procedures, instruments, and analysis of your research.

•  The results: A clear and accurate results section that reports and illustrates the findings and outcomes of your research.

•  The discussion: A thoughtful and insightful discussion section that interprets and explains the meaning and implications of your results, and compares and contrasts them with the previous literature.

•  The conclusion: A concise and conclusive conclusion section that summarizes the main points and findings of your research, and provides recommendations and suggestions for future research.

•  The references: A complete and consistent reference list that cites all the sources that you have used or referred to in your paper, following the citation style of the journal.

•  The appendices: Any additional or supplementary information that supports your research, such as tables, figures, questionnaires, etc.

Step 6: Proofread and Edit the Research Paper

The sixth step is to proofread and edit the research paper, which is the process of checking and correcting any errors, inconsistencies, or weaknesses in your paper. You should proofread and edit your paper for the following aspects:

•  The spelling and grammar: You should check and correct any spelling or grammatical mistakes in your paper, such as typos, punctuation, or verb tense errors.

•  The syntax and semantics: You should check and improve the sentence structure and word choice in your paper, such as clarity, coherence, conciseness, or vocabulary.

•  The Logic and coherence: You should check and enhance the logic and argument of your paper, such as transitions, connections, or evidence.

•  The format and style: You should check and adhere to the format and style of the journal, such as layout, font, headings, numbering, etc.

You can use various tools and resources to help you proofread and edit your paper, such as:

•  The proofreading and editing guides: You can follow the steps and tips for proofreading and editing your paper, using guides such as [this one] or [this one].

•  The proofreading and editing software: You can use software to detect and correct your errors, such as Grammarly, ProWritingAid, Hemingway, etc.

Step 7: Submit and Publish the Research Paper

The seventh and final step is to submit and publish the research paper, which is the process of sending and getting your paper accepted by the journal. The submission and publication process should include:

•  The journal selection: You should choose a suitable journal for your paper, based on the scope, audience, quality, and reputation of the journal. You can use various tools and resources to help you find and compare journals, such as Scopus, Journal Finder, or Journal Guide.

•  The submission preparation: You should prepare your paper and any other required documents, such as a cover letter, a response letter, or a declaration of interest, according to the journal's instructions and guidelines. You should also check and comply with the journal's policies and ethics, such as plagiarism, authorship, or conflicts of interest.

•  The submission process: You should submit your paper and any other documents through the journal's online submission system, or by email, if applicable. You should also keep track of your submission status and communicate with the editor or the journal staff, if necessary.

•  The peer review process: Your paper will undergo a peer review process, which is an evaluation and feedback by one or more experts in your field, who will assess the quality, validity, and originality of your paper. You will receive a decision from the editor, which may be acceptance, minor revision, major revision, or rejection. You should respond to the decision and the reviewers' comments and suggestions, and revise and resubmit your paper if required.

•  The publication process: If your paper is accepted, it will go through the publication process, which involves the editing, proofreading, formatting, and printing of your paper. You may also have to pay some fees, such as publication fees, open access fees, or page charges, depending on the journal. You will receive the proofs of your paper, which you should check and approve before the final publication. You will also receive the citation and the link to your paper, which you can use to share and promote your research.


Writing and publishing a research paper is a rewarding and challenging experience for students, but it is also a complex and competitive process that requires careful planning, rigorous research, and clear writing. By following these 7 steps, you can improve your writing and submission skills, and increase your chances of getting published in Scopus indexed journals.